Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for the ‘Documents, Pacts, and Treaties’ Category

Hitler’s Order of the Day Calling for Invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece, Berlin, April 6, 1941

SOLDIERS OF THE SOUTHEAST FRONT:

Since early this morning the German people are at war with the Belgrade government of intrigue. We shall only lay down arms when this band of ruffians has been definitely and most emphatically eliminated, and the last Briton has left this part of the European Continent, and that these misled people realize that they must thank Britain for this situation, they must thank England, the greatest warmonger of all time. The German people can enter into this new struggle with the inner satisfaction that its leaders have done everything to bring about a peaceful settlement.

We pray to God that He may lead our soldiers on the path and bless them as hitherto.

In accordance with the policy of letting others fight for her, as she did in the case of Poland, Britain again tried to involve Germany in the struggle in which Britain hoped that she would finish off the German people once and for all, to win the war, and if possible to destroy the entire German Army.

In a few weeks long ago the German soldiers on the Eastern Front, Poland, swept aside this instrument of British policy. On April 9, 1940, Britain again attempted to reach its goal by a thrust on the German north flank, the thrust at Norway.

In an unforgettable struggle the German soldiers in Norway eliminated the British within a period of a few weeks.

What the world did not deem possible the German people have achieved. Again, only a few weeks later, Churchill thought the moment right to make a renewed thrust through the British Allies, France and Belgium, into the German region of the Ruhr. The victorious hour of our soldiers on the West Front began.

(more…)

Read Full Post »

Documents related to the conflict with Yugoslavia – Berlin, 1941

 

Germany and Yugoslavia - 1941

(more…)

Read Full Post »

The Winter War (Finnish: Talvisota, Russian: Советско-финляндская война – official, Зимняя война- unofficial, Swedish: Vinterkriget) began when the Soviet Union ruled by dictator Josef Stalin attacked Finland on November 30, 1939, three months after the invasion of Poland by Germany that started World War II. Because the attack was judged as illegal, the Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations on December 14.
 

League of Nations Expulsion of the USSRDecember 141939

The Council,

 

Having taken cognisance of the resolution adopted by the Assembly on December 14, 1939, regarding the appeal of the Finnish Government,

 

1. Associates itself with the condemnation by the Assembly of the action of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics against the Finnish State, and

 

2. For the reasons set forth in the resolution of the Assembly, in virtue of Article 16, paragraph 4, of the Covenant, finds that, by its act, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has placed itself outside the League of Nations. It follows that the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is no longer a Member of the League.

===================================================================

See also: Russo-Finnish War Maps

Read Full Post »

Franco-German Declaration : December 6, 1938

M. Georges Bonnet, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the French Republic and M. Joachim Von Ribbentrop, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the German Reich,

ACTING in the name and by order of their respective Governments, have agreed on the following points at their meeting in Paris on December 6, 1938:

(1) The French Government and the German Government fully share the conviction that pacific and neighbourly relations between France and Germany constitute one of the essential elements of the consolidation of the situation in Europe and of the preservation of general peace. Consequently both Governments will endeavour with all their might to assure the development of the relations between their countries in this direction.

(2) Both Governments agree that no question of a territorial nature remains in suspense between their countries and solemnly recognize as permanent the frontier between their countries as it is actually drawn.

(3) Both Governments are resolved, without prejudice to their special relations with third Powers, to remain in contact on all questions of importance to both their countries and to have recourse to mutual consultation in case any complications arising out of these questions should threaten to lead to international difficulties.

In witness whereof the Representatives of the two Government have signed the present Declaration, which comes into force immediately.

Executed in duplicate in the French and German languages at Paris, on December 6, 1938.

Signed: Georges Bonnet,

Joachim Von Ribbentrop.

Source: The French Yellow Book

Read Full Post »

Forum of adoption: Diplomatic Conference

In force: no

Entry into force:  14.09.1937

During the Spanish Civil War, nine Powers agreed to take collective measures to suppress attacks by submarines against merchant vessels. The Agreement refers in the preamble to the provisions of the London Treaty of 1930 and the procès-verbal of 1936 concerning submarine warfare. In the Supplementary Agreement of 17 September 1937 the same Powers made the principles of the first Agreement applicable to attacks by surface vessels and aircraft.

 

Meetings of forum; 09.09.1937 – 14.09.1937, Nyon

Date of adoption: 14.09.1937

Depositary UNO

Number of articles: 9

Authentic textEnglish; French

Source D.Schindler and J.Toman, The Laws of Armed Conflicts, Martinus Nihjoff Publisher, 1988, pp.887-889.

Ratification  a treaty is generally open for signature for a certain time following the conference which has adopted it. However, a signature is not binding on a State unless it has been endorsed by ratification. The time limits having elapsed, the Conventions and the Protocols are no longer open for signature. The States which have not signed them may at any time accede or, in the appropriate circumstances, succeed to them.

Accession : instead of signing and then ratifying a treaty, a State may become party to it by the single act called accession.

Reservation / Declaration : unilateral statement, however phrased or named, made by a State when ratifying, acceding or succeeding to a treaty, whereby it purports to exclude or to modify the legal effect of certain provisions of the treaty in their application to that State (provided that such reservations are not incompatible with the object and purpose of the treaty).

 

Preamble

Whereas arising out of the Spanish conflict attacks have been repeatedly committed in the Mediterranean by submarines against merchant ships not belonging to either of the conflicting Spanish parties; and

Whereas these attacks are violations of the rules of international law referred to in Part IV of the Treaty of London of 22 April 1930, with regard to the sinking of merchant ships and constitute acts contrary to the most elementary dictates of humanity, which should be justly treated as acts of piracy; and

Whereas without in any wily admitting the right of either party to the conflict in Spain to exercise belligerent rights or to interfere with merchant ships on the high seas even if the laws of warfare at sea are observed and without prejudice to the right of any participating Power to take such action as may be proper to protect its merchant shipping from any kind of interference on the high seas or to the possibility of further collective measures being agreed upon subsequently, it is necessary in the first place to agree upon certain special collective measures against piratical acts by submarines:

(more…)

Read Full Post »

Text of German-Polish Agreement of January 26, 1934.

The German Government and the Polish Government consider that the time has come to introduce a new phase in the political relations between Germany and Poland by a direct understanding between State and State. They have, therefore, decided to lay down the principles for the future development of these relations in the present declaration.

The two Governments base their action on the fact that the maintenance and guarantee of a lasting peace between their countries is an essential pre-condition for the general peace of Europe.

They have therefore decided to base their mutual relations on the principles laid down in the Pact of Paris of the 17th August, 1928, and propose to define more exactly the application of these principles in so far as the relations between Germany and Poland are concerned.

Each of the two Governments, therefore, lays it down that the international obligations undertaken by it towards a third party do not hinder the peaceful development of their mutual relations, do not conflict with the present declaration, and are not affected by this declaration. They establish, moreover, that this declaration does not extend to those questions which under international law are to be regarded exclusively as the internal concern of one of the two States.

Both Governments announce their intention to settle directly all questions of whatever sort which concern their mutual relations.

Should any disputes arise between them and agreement thereon not be reached by direct negotiation, they will in each particular case, on the basis of mutual agreement, seek a solution by other peaceful means, without prejudice to the possibility of applying, if necessary, those methods of procedure in which provision is made for such cases in other agreements in force between them. In no circumstances, however, will they proceed to the application of force for the purpose of reaching a decision in such disputes.

The guarantee of peace created by these principles will facilitate the great task of both Governments of finding a solution for problems of political, economic and social kinds, based on a just and fair adjustment of the interests of both parties.

Both Governments are convinced that the relations between their countries will in this manner develop fruitfully, and will lead to the establishment of a neighbourly relationship which will contribute to the well-being not only of both their countries, but of the other peoples of Europe as well.

The present declaration shall be ratified, and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged in Warsaw as soon as possible.

The declaration is valid for a period of ten years, reckoned from the day of the exchange of the instruments of ratification.

If the declaration is not denounced by one of the two Governments six months before the expiration of this period, it will continue in force, but can then be denounced by either Government at any time on notice of six months being given. Made in duplicate in the German and Polish languages.

Berlin, January 26, 1934.
For the German Government:
FREIHERR VON NEURATH.
For the Polish Government
JOSEF LIPSKI.

Source: The British War Bluebook

Read Full Post »

Prior to the “May Crisis”, Hitler appeared to be in no hurry to bring the crisis over Czechoslovakia to a conclusion. An earlier draft memorandum on “Operation Green” (the code name for the invasion of Czechoslovakia), dated 20 May 1938, indicated no immediate timetable for the operation. The events of 19-22 May 1938, however, caused Hitler to change his mind. He believed that Germany had suffered a loss of face in climbing down – or appearing to climb down – when confronted with the apparent resolution of Britain and France. An amendment to the plan was issued within a week. An accompanying covering letter from General Keitel, Chief of the Armed Forces, clearly sets a target date.

Berlin, 30 May, 1938

TOP SECRET, MILITARY
Supreme Commander of the Wehrmacht
O.K.W. No. 42/38 Top Secret, Military. LI
ONLY TO BE HANDLED BY AN OFFICER
WRITTEN BY AN OFFICER

By order of the Supreme Commander of the Wehrmacht, part 2, section II of the directive on the combined preparations for war of the Wehrmacht of June 24, 1937 (Supreme Headquarters No. 55/37, Top Secret, Mil. LIa). (War on Two Fronts with Main Effort in the Southeast, Strategic Concentration “Green”) is to be replaced by the attached version. Its execution must be assured by October 1, 1938, at the latest.

Alterations to other parts of the directive are to be expected during the next few weeks.

Keitel
Chief of the Supreme Headquarters
of the Wehrmacht

To:
C.-in-C. Army
C.-in-C. Navy
C.-in-C. Air Force
O.K.W. Section L

[Enclosure]

Copy of 4th version

TOP SECRET, MILITARY
Appendix to: Supreme Commander of the Wehrmacht O.K.W.
No.я42/38,Top Secret, Military, LIa, dated May 30, 1938.
ONLY TO BE HANDLED BY AN OFFICER
WRITTEN BY AN OFFICER

(more…)

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »